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Wednesday, 20 January 2016

Assurance maladie


L’assurance maladie Prononciation du titre dans sa version originale Écouter est un dispositif chargé d'assurer un individu face à des risques financiers de soins en cas de maladie, ainsi qu'un revenu minimal lorsque l'affection prive la personne de travail.

Dans la plupart des pays occidentaux, une grande part de l'assurance maladie est prise en charge par l'État. C'est d'ailleurs une des composantes fondamentales de la sécurité sociale, et un devoir de l’État selon la Déclaration universelle des droits de l'homme de 1948.

Un système d'assurance maladie public peut être géré par un organisme d’État, délégué à des organismes privés, ou bien être mixte.

Le fonctionnement, comme toutes les assurances, est basé sur la mutualisation du risque : chaque personne cotise, en échange de quoi elle est remboursée selon un barème fixé.

Concernant un système d'assurance maladie public, la prime d'assurance payée par l'assuré ne suit pas forcément les règles de l'assurance pure, c’est-à-dire qu'elle n'est pas basée uniquement sur le risque. En effet, le système public remplit à la fois une fonction d'assurance pure et une fonction de répartition dans lequel les plus aisés payent l'assurance des plus défavorisés.

Histoire

Jusqu'au xviiie siècle, les protections contre les risques de la vie sont assurées par la richesse personnelle, la solidarité locale (familiale, villageoise) ou professionnelle (guildes, jurandes), et la charité. Au xixe siècle, la révolution industrielle concentre les populations dans les villes où la solidarité locale ne peut plus jouer alors que le nombre d'accidents du travail augmente1. De plus, se développe un mouvement intellectuel et scientifique qui promeut la prévoyance individuelle (à l'origine des assurance privées), les sociétés d'assurance mutuelle qui apportent la prévoyance collective et la notion de « dette sacrée » apportée par la Révolution française dont l'article 21 de la Déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen de 1793 reconnaît pour chaque citoyen le droit à l’assistance et à la protection sociale, donnant naissance à la sécurité sociale2.

Ces nouvelles conceptions sont appliquées en Prusse où Otto von Bismarck, souhaitant un État fort, développe le premier système d’assurances sociales obligatoires avec les projets de loi concernant l’assurance contre les accidents du travail et l’assurance-maladie sociale adoptés en 1883 et 18843.

Modèles d'assurance maladie

L'assurance maladie peut prendre deux formes différentes :

soit il s'agit simplement d'une assurance financière : l'individu est assuré pour un risque (l'accident, la maladie), et ses soins (rémunération des praticiens, coût des produits et médicaments, prothèses, orthèses…) sont remboursés selon le barème ;
soit l'organisme assureur constitue un réseau de soins : il contacte des praticiens, fournisseurs... L'assurance achète une sorte d'abonnement à ce réseau de soins et le revend à l'usager ;
dans sa forme la plus extrême, l'assuré n'a pas le choix de son praticien, du moins s'il veut bénéficier de la gratuité des soins ou de leur remboursement.
On peut avoir une coexistence de ces deux modèles.

L'assurance maladie peut être un organisme purement étatique (public), cela peut être uniquement des assureurs privés ou bien on peut avoir un système mixte : l'usager dispose d'une assurance publique et peut contracter une assurance privée auprès d'une compagnie ou mutuelle d'assurance (appelée « complémentaire santé » en France) qui complète le remboursement ou fournit un accès à un réseau de soins complémentaire.

On constate que les pays ayant adopté un système purement privé et concurrentiel sont également ceux pour lesquels les dépenses sont les plus élevées. Ainsi, alors que les pays développés dépensent en moyenne 10 % de leur PIB dans leur système de soins, les États-Unis en dépensent 14 % et la Suisse 13 %. Néanmoins, dans un système d'assurance en concurrence, les assurés choisissent le niveau de dépense qu'ils souhaitent par rapport au niveau de couverture santé qu'ils souhaitent. Le niveau de dépense dans un système en concurrence révèle donc le niveau de dépense souhaité par les consommateurs. Dans un système public, l'État fixe le niveau des dépenses et rationne l'usage des services de santé pour les limiter (par exemple, médecin traitant en France). La comparaison des niveaux de dépenses entre systèmes publics et systèmes en concurrence est donc biaisée du fait qu'il s'agit de systèmes non comparables dans leur usage.

L'assurance maladie dans le monde

Allemagne

Fondé sur les principes d'une assurance professionnelle dans le cadre de l'entreprise et de la prévoyance sociale, le système allemand se trouve dans un processus de réforme depuis la fin des années 1980 intégrant une dimension financière et organisationnelle.

En 1883, la loi sur l'assurance maladie instaure la mise en place de l'assurance obligatoire pour les ouvriers dans l'industrie. Entré en vigueur en 1914, ce système demeure la principale base juridique de la législation sur l'assurance maladie jusqu'à l'adoption en 1988 de la première loi sur la réforme du système de santé.

Régime public : 88 % des habitants y sont affiliés. Une assurance maladie est obligatoire en dessous d'un certain seuil de revenus. Les cotisations correspondent à 15,5% du salaire brut dont 8,3% sont payés par l'employeur4.
Régime privé : 12 % des habitants y sont affiliés. Au-delà d'un certain seuil de revenus (50 850 € bruts), les salariés peuvent opter pour le régime de l'assurance privée. Les fonctionnaires, travailleurs indépendants et étudiants peuvent affilier à cette assurance privée sans atteindre un seuil de salaire5. Les étudiants peuvent demander à être exemptés de leur obligation d’assurance publique pour s'affilier au système privé. Les étudiants de plus de 25 ans qui ne sont pas couverts par l’assurance maladie de leurs parents peuvent alors s'affilier au régime privé qui se veut bien souvent moins onéreux que le système public6. Cette assurance privée couvre 10 % de la population qui a ainsi la possibilité de ne pas choisir le système d’adhésion obligatoire au-delà d’un seuil de revenus mais qui peut aussi cumuler les deux types de protection publique et privée.
Les caractéristiques du système allemand sont les suivantes :

les cotisations sociales (salariales et patronales) financent majoritairement le risque maladie ;
les caisses d'assurance maladie au sein desquelles siègent des représentants des financeurs (syndicats de salariés et organisations patronales) ont un rôle gestionnaire ;
une très grande diversité (près de trois cents caisses publiques différentes) et une grande autonomie des caisses d'assurance maladie (elles fixent chacune librement leur taux de cotisation, qui sont différents d'une caisse à l'autre) ;
le tiers-payant généralisé ;
le rôle important de la négociation collective entre les caisses et les représentants des médecins et avec les hôpitaux ;
le système fédéral qui donne un rôle important aux Länder (en particulier dans le domaine hospitalier).
Le système d'assurance maladie allemand est proche du modèle français dans sa philosophie et confronté à des difficultés comparables7.

Depuis le 21 décembre 2012, une nouvelle loi est passée en vigueur, éliminant la discrimination qui pouvait avoir lieu parfois envers les femmes et parfois envers les hommes : le tarif unisexe pour les assurances8. Les assurances proposaient jusque fin 2012 des tarifs préférentiels pour le sexe masculin et parfois pour le sexe féminin. Les assurances automobiles étaient par exemple nettement moins chères pour les femmes car la majorité des accidents étaient dus à des étudiants masculins9. La différenciation des prix était présente pour de nombreuses assurances jusqu'à ce que la cour européenne, dans un esprit d'unicité à l'égard des autres pays européens, déclare que ces différences n'avaient plus lieu d'être. Dorénavant, les femmes paient ainsi leurs assurances auto plus chères qu'auparavant et les hommes profitent d'un rabaissement de ces frais d'assurance pour arriver à une moyenne unisexe. Les assurances maladies ont été très peu modifiées mais ont tout de même été unifiées entre les deux sexes (notamment pour les assurances au niveau des cancers). Dans le fond la mesure n'a pas eu d'incidence budgétaire importante, il s'agit avant tout de réduire toute forme de discrimination.

En Allemagne, les sans-abris ne bénéficieraient plus de l'assurance-maladie[réf. nécessaire]10.

Belgique

L'assurance maladie-invalidité est une assurance "soin de santé" obligatoire gérée par l'Institut national d'assurance maladie invalidité (l'INAMI). C'est un des fondements de la sécurité sociale belge.

Cette assurance est en déficit de 634 millions d'euros en 2004, notamment à cause du vieillissement de la population et de la dégradation du rapport « nombre de cotisants » / « nombre de bénéficiaires ».

Le gouvernement fédéral belge en accord avec les acteurs du secteur médical recherchent différentes solutions à ce problème. L'usage accru de médicaments génériques, à l'efficacité équivalente aux médicaments de grande marque mais nettement moins chers, permettrait par exemple de réduire les coûts des médicaments (aux dépens de l'industrie pharmaceutique). La réduction des examens médicaux superflus est une autre piste. D'autres plaident pour la régionalisation de l'assurance maladie, arguant que les flamands subsidient des wallons surconsommateurs de soin de santé11.

Canada
En Éducation et Santé, il appartient aux provinces canadiennes d'administrer les politiques et les enveloppes budgétaires dans ces secteurs, suivant le partage des autorités et responsabilités fédérale, provinciale, régionale et municipale.

Québec
Article détaillé : Régie de l'assurance-maladie du Québec.
Les soins de santé de base des citoyens du Québec sont couverts depuis 1970 par la Régie de l'assurance-maladie du Québec (RAMQ), un organisme du gouvernement québécois relevant du Ministère de la Santé et des Services sociaux du Québec.

États-Unis
Article connexe : Protection sociale aux États-Unis.
Aux États-Unis, l'assurance maladie dépend surtout d'assureurs privés12. Les pouvoirs publics garantissent les soins aux personnes âgées (Medicare) ou démunies (Medicaid). D'autre part, et contrairement à une idée répandue, même les non-assurés ont accès à des soins de santé gratuits offerts par les hôpitaux publics, centres de santé communautaires, hôpitaux universitaires, etc13. D’après les données de l’OCDE, les dépenses publiques de santé sont de 2 464 $ par habitant.[réf. nécessaire]

En 2010, 83,5 % des Américains possédaient une assurance maladie et 50 millions en étaient privés14. Ce taux doit cependant être relativisé : la moitié des individus non assurés ont moins de 35 ans15 et la répartition des personnes non assurées par classes d'âge fait que 95 % des problèmes de santé touchent les populations assurées15. En outre, les deux tiers des non assurés ont des revenus supérieurs à 25 000 $ et les ménages dont les revenus se situent en dessous du seuil de pauvreté ne représentent qu'un cinquième des non-assurés16. Selon Bundorf et Pauly dans le Journal of Health Economics, « jusqu'à trois quarts des non-assurés américains pourraient s'offrir une assurance santé sans enfreindre leur contrainte budgétaire »17. Il s'agit donc plutôt de non-assurance volontaire.

Une partie importante des cotisations, 30 %, n'est pas réinvestie dans la santé mais part en frais administratifs, marketing et bénéfices.[réf. nécessaire] L'assurance maladie revient deux fois plus cher qu'en France : 5 500 dollars par personne en 2005, cela représente 16 % du PIB.

La réforme de l'assurance maladie voulue par le président américain Barack Obama est votée par le Sénat en novembre 2009 et par la Chambre des représentants le 21 mars 201018. Elle contraint tous les Américains à souscrire une assurance avant 2014 sous peine d'amende14. Elle interdit aux assurances de refuser de couvrir leurs assurés en raison de leurs antécédents médicaux14. Elle octroie une aide financière aux familles qui ont des revenus inférieurs à 88 000 dollars par an14. La réforme devrait coûter 940 milliards de dollars(695 milliards d'euros) sur dix ans14. Son financement devrait être assuré par des taxes sur les revenus élevés et la baisse des dépenses de soins14.

Bachelor's degree or higher

Bachelor's degree or higher is a commonly used term by the United States Census Bureau and other U.S. government agencies on the federal as well as state and local level. The term describes the portion of the population that has either a bachelor's degree or a higher degree such as a master's or doctorate degree. In 2013, 31.66% of the population over 25 years old in the United States had a bachelor's degree or higher.

The term is sometimes used as a synonym for "college graduate" as it includes not only those with a bachelor's degree but all others who have completed a degree requiring more than four years of credits. While the term is sometimes used interchangeably with the term college graduate, it excludes those with an associate degree, as this college degree only requires two years' worth of units and is thus lower than bachelor's degree.

Academic degree


Emergence of the doctor’s and master’s degrees and the licentiate

The doctorate (Latin: doceo “I teach”) appeared in medieval Europe as a license to teach (Latin: licentia docendi) at a medieval university.[2] Its roots can be traced to the early church when the term "doctor" referred to the Apostles, church fathers and other Christian authorities who taught and interpreted the Bible.[2] The right to grant a licentia docendi was originally reserved to the church which required the applicant to pass a test, to take oath of allegiance and pay a fee. The Third Council of the Lateran of 1179 guaranteed the access – now largely free of charge – of all able applicants, who were, however, still tested for aptitude by the ecclesiastic scholastic.[3] This right remained a bone of contention between the church authorities and the slowly emancipating universities, but was granted by the Pope to the University of Paris in 1231 where it became a universal license to teach (licentia ubique docendi).[3] However, while the licentia continued to hold a higher prestige than the bachelor's degree (Baccalaureus), it was ultimately reduced to an intermediate step to the Magister and doctorate, both of which now became the exclusive qualification for teaching.[3]

At the university, doctoral training was a form of apprenticeship to a guild.[4] The traditional term of study before new teachers were admitted to the guild of "Master of Arts", seven years, was the same as the term of apprenticeship for other occupations. Originally the terms "master" and "doctor" were synonymous,[5] but over time the doctorate came to be regarded as a higher qualification than the master degree.

Today the terms "master", "doctor" (from the Latin – meaning literally: "teacher") and "professor" signify different levels of academic achievement, but in the Medieval university they were equivalent terms, the use of them in the degree name being a matter of custom at a university. (Most universities conferred the Master of Arts, although the highest degree was often termed Master of Theology/Divinity or Doctor of Theology/Divinity depending on the place).

The earliest doctoral degrees (theology – Divinitatis Doctor (D.D.), philosophy – Doctor of philosophy (D.Phil., Ph.D.) and medicine – Medicinæ Doctor (M.D., D.M.)) reflected the historical separation of all University study into these three fields. Over time, the D.D. has gradually become less common outside theology, and is now mostly used for honorary degrees, with the title "Doctor of Theology" being used more often for earned degrees. Studies outside theology and medicine were then called "philosophy", due to the Renaissance conviction that real knowledge could be derived from empirical observation, and this usage survives in the degree title of Doctor of Philosophy. Studies in these fields have become much more common, but are now classified as sciences and humanities.

The University of Bologna in Italy, regarded as the oldest university in Europe, was the second institution to confer the degree of Doctor in Civil Law in the late 12th century; it also conferred similar degrees in other subjects, including medicine.

The University of Paris used the term "master" for its graduates, a practice adopted by the English universities of Oxford and Cambridge, as well as the ancient Scottish universities of St Andrews, Glasgow, Aberdeen, and Edinburgh.

Emergence of the bachelor's degree

In the medieval European universities, candidates who had completed three or four years of study in the prescribed texts of the trivium (grammar, rhetoric, and logic), and the quadrivium (mathematics, geometry, astronomy and music), together known as the Liberal Arts, and who had successfully passed examinations held by their master, would be admitted to the degree of Bachelor of Arts, from the Latin baccalaureus, a term previously used of a squire (i.e., apprentice) to a knight. Further study, and in particular successful participation in and then moderating of disputations would earn one the Master of Arts degree, from the Latin magister, "master" (typically indicating a teacher), entitling one to teach these subjects. Master of Arts were eligible to enter study under the "higher faculties" of Law, Medicine or Theology, and earn first a bachelor's and then master or doctor's degrees in these subjects. Thus a degree was only a step on the way to becoming a fully qualified master – hence the English word "graduate", which is based on the Latin gradus ("step").

The evolution of the terminology of degrees

The naming of degrees eventually became linked with the subjects studied. Scholars in the faculties of arts or grammar became known as "master", but those in theology, medicine, and law were known as "doctor". As study in the arts or in grammar was a necessary prerequisite to study in subjects such as theology, medicine and law, the degree of doctor assumed a higher status than the master degree. This led to the modern hierarchy in which the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), which in its present form as a degree based on research and dissertation is a development from 18th- and 19th-century German universities, is a more advanced degree than the Master of Arts (M.A.). The practice of using the term doctor for PhDs developed within German universities and spread across the academic world.

The French terminology is tied closely to the original meanings of the terms. The baccalauréat (cf. "bachelor") is conferred upon French students who have successfully completed their secondary education and admits the student to university. When students graduate from university, they are awarded licence, much as the medieval teaching guilds would have done, and they are qualified to teach in secondary schools or proceed to higher-level studies. Spain had a similar structure: the term "Bachiller" was used for those who finished the secondary or high-school level education, known as "Bachillerato". The standard Spanish university 5-years degree was "Licenciado", (although there were a few 3-years associate degrees called "diplomaturas", from where the "diplomados" could move to study a related licenciatura). The highest level was "Doctor".

Degrees awarded by institutions other than universities

In the past, degrees have also been directly issued by authority of the monarch or by a bishop, rather than any educational institution. This practice has mostly died out. In Great Britain, Lambeth Degrees are still awarded by the Archbishop of Canterbury.[7] The Archbishop of Canterbury's right to grant degrees is derived from Peter's Pence Act of 1533 which empowered the Archbishop to grant dispensations previously granted by the Pope.[8]

Academic dress

Main article: Academic dress
In most countries, gaining an academic degree entitles the holder to assume distinctive academic dress particular to the awarding institution, identifying the status of the individual wearing them.

Current levels of attainment of degrees

Traditionally more men than women attended and earned degrees at the world's universities. A milestone was reached in the United States according to results of the 2010 census, as women surpassed men in attaining master's degrees, for the first time.[9] The U.S. census reports that 10.5 million men have master's degrees or higher, compared with 10.6 million women. The first year that women surpassed men in earning bachelor's degrees was in 1996.

Indicating earned degrees

There are various conventions for indicating degrees and diplomas after one's name. In some cultures, it is usual to give only the highest degree. In others, it is usual to give the full sequence, in some cases giving abbreviations also for the discipline, the institution, and (where it applies) the level of honours. In another variation, a 'rule of subsumption' often shortens the list and may obscure the chronology evident from a full listing. Thus, 'M.Sc., B.Sc.' means that the degrees conferred were – in chronological order – B.Sc., M.Sc. The subsumption rule reflects the principle that a person of a given high status does not separately belong to the lower status.

For member institutions of the Association of Commonwealth Universities, there is a standard list of abbreviations, but in practice many variations are used. Most notable is the use of the Latin abbreviations 'Oxon.' and 'Cantab.' for the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, in spite of these having been superseded by (little used) English 'Oxf.' and 'Camb.' Other Latin abbreviations include St And. for the University of St Andrews, Exon. for the University of Exeter, Dunelm. for Durham University, Ebor. for the University of York, Cantuar. for the University of Kent (formerly the "University of Kent at Canterbury") and N'cle for University of Newcastle upon Tyne. Confusion results from the widespread use of 'SA' for the University of South Australia (instead of S.Aust.) because 'SA' was officially assigned to the University of South Africa. For universities of different commonwealth countries sharing the same name, such as York University in Canada and the University of York in the UK, a convention has been adopted where a country abbreviation is included with the letters and university name. In this example, 'York (Can.)' and 'York (UK)' is commonly used to denote degrees conferred by their respective universities.

The doubling of letters in LL.B., LL.M., LL.D. is because these degrees are in laws, not law. The doubled letter indicates the Latin plural (genitive case) legum as opposed to the singular (genitive case) legis. Abbreviations for the degrees in surgery Ch. B. and Ch. M. are from Latin chiruguriae and often indicate a university system patterned after Scottish models. The combination of M.B. with Ch. B. arose from a need to graduate the students at the time of year allocated to graduation rituals, but the legal inability to confer the M.B. before they had been properly approved by professional regulatory bodies. Thus, the Ch. B. was conferred first, and the M.B. was conferred later, after registration, and without ceremony. In recent times the two have come to be conferred together and are widely (mis)understood to constitute a single degree.

Some degrees are awarded jure dignitatis. That is, a person who has demonstrated the appropriate qualities to be given a particular office may be awarded the degree by virtue of the office held. It is another kind of earned—but not generally strictly academic—degree. An exception occurs when a doctorate is conferred based on both the office and a completed dissertation. In such circumstances, the degree is awarded "dissertation et jure dignitatis."

Online degree

Main article: Online degree
An online degree is an academic degree (usually a college degree, but sometimes the term includes high school diplomas and non-degree certificate programs) that can be earned primarily or entirely through the use of an Internet-connected computer, rather than attending college in a traditional campus setting. Improvements in technology, the increasing use of the Internet worldwide, and the need for people to have flexible school schedules that enable them to work while attending school have led to a proliferation of online colleges that award associate's, bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees.[11]

Degree systems by regions

Asia
Bangladesh, India & Pakistan

Bangladesh, India and Pakistan mostly follow the colonial era British system for classification of degrees. Arts referring to the performing arts and literature the corresponding degree are Bachelor of Arts (BA) and its master is called Master of Arts (MA). Management degrees are also classified under 'Arts' but is nowadays considered a major new stream, Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) and Master Of Business Administration (MBA). Science referring to the basic sciences and natural science (Biology, Physics, Chemistry etc.) the corresponding degree are Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) and its master is called Master of Science (M.Sc.). Another new set of Information Technology degree conferred specially in the field of computer science, Bachelor of Science in Information Technology (B.Sc.IT.) and Master of Science in Information Technology (M.Sc.IT.). The engineering degrees in India follow two common patterns. Bachelor of Engineering (B.E.) and Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech) both representing a bachelor's degree in engineering and Pakistan Engineering Degrees are Bachelor of Engineering (B.E.) and B.Sc. Engineering both are same in curriculum, duration and pattern. where as B. Tech. Degree holders in Pakistan are not considered as Engineers as per Pakistan Engineering Council criteria for engineers they are considered as technologist in Pakistan. Medical Degree – Bachelor of Medicine & Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS), Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS),(BCA)-Bachelor of Computer Application and (MCA)-Master of Computer Application.

Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka as many other commonwealth countries follow the British system with its own distinctions. Degrees are approved by the University Grants Commission.

Africa
Tunisia
Grading in Tunisia is done on a scale of 0-20. The passing grade is 10 out of 20 which is 50% of the complete mark; 20. This grading system is used from middle-school up to university level. A PhD thesis is even graded out of 20.

To get ahead on the academic ladder, one is strictly assessed numerically. That is; if you are a BA holder applying for an MA program you will be admitted according to how high your grades were during your undergraduate years.

Europe

Main articles: Bologna process and European Higher Education Area
Since the Lisbon Recognition Convention elaborated by the UNESCO and the Council of Europe,[12] degrees in Europe are being harmonised through the Bologna process, based on the three-level hierarchy of degrees: Bachelor (Licence in France, Poland, Portugal and Romania), Master and Doctor. This system is gradually replacing the two-stage system in use in some countries.

The Bologna Process currently has 47 participating countries.[13] Although a country is a Bologna Process member state, this does not necessarily mean that the Bologna Accords have been implemented yet in that country.

Wednesday, 6 January 2016

Bachelor of Business Administration


Der Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) ist ein akademischer Grad, der überwiegend in angloamerikanisch geprägten Bildungssystemen durch einen Studiengang der Betriebswirtschaftslehre nach einem drei- oder meist vierjährigen Vollzeitstudium erlangt werden kann. In Deutschland führt der BBA zu einem ersten berufsqualifizierenden Abschluss. In Auslandssemestern wird der BBA oft als Double-Degree mit einem anderweitigen Bachelorabschluss vergeben.
Studieninhalte[Bearbeiten]
Vermittelt werden sowohl die fachlichen Fertigkeiten der Betriebswirtschaft und angrenzender Fachgebiete als auch analytische, methodische und soziale Fähigkeiten.

Zu Beginn werden in BBA-Studiengängen wie in anderen betriebswirtschaftlichen wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Studiengängen primär Grundlagen zum Beispiel aus den Bereichen Buchführung, Bilanzierung, Betriebswirtschaftslehre, Volkswirtschaftslehre, Marketing, Finanzierung, Controlling, Personalmanagement und Recht inklusive Steuerrecht vermittelt.

Der sich daran anschließende Teil des BBA-Studiums, der in der Regel mehrere Semester umfasst, ist dagegen stark handlungsorientiert ausgerichtet. Dieser Teil des Studiums besteht deshalb zu erheblichen Teilen oder sogar ausschließlich aus Seminaren und teils umfangreichen Projektarbeiten, welche sehr oft in Gruppen über einen längeren Zeitraum (oft einige Monate) bearbeitet werden müssen. Es werden dabei real existierende betriebswirtschaftliche Probleme in Unternehmen oder Märkten bearbeitet und mit einer schriftlichen Arbeit sowie häufig zusätzlich mit einer mündlichen Prüfung in Form eines Kolloquium oder einer Präsentation abgeschlossen.

Abgrenzung zu anderen Bachelor-Studiengängen[Bearbeiten]
Der Bachelor of Business Administration hat den gleichen Stellenwert wie der Bachelor of Science oder Bachelor of Arts, ist aber noch stärker anwendungsorientiert (siehe Studieninhalte). Studienziel ist neben der Vermittlung von wissenschaftlichen Grundlagen und Methodenwissen die berufspraktische Qualifikationen für verschiedene Tätigkeits- und Berufsfelder der Betriebswirtschaft und des Managements. Im Vergleich zu wissenschaftlich orientierten betriebswirtschaftlichen oder wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Studiengängen, welche meistens mit einem Bachelor of Science oder Bachelor of Arts abschließen, werden beim BBA umfassende Handlungskompetenzen für alle wirtschaftlichen und administrativen Aufgabenbereiche vermittelt, für die das moderne betriebswirtschaftliche Instrumentarium erforderlich sind.

Studiengänge mit dem Abschluss Bachelor of Science oder Bachelor of Arts werden mit einer Bachelorarbeit, einer wissenschaftlichen Abschlussarbeit, abgeschlossen. Aufgrund der starken anwendungsbezogenen Orientierung werden dagegen viele BBA-Studiengänge ohne eine solche beendet oder die Abschlussarbeit besteht aus einer Projektarbeit oder Studienarbeit aus der Praxis. Abschließendes Ziel der Studien- und Projektarbeiten sind oft das Erarbeiten von Handlungsempfehlungen durch die Studenten (beispielsweise: Wie lässt sich eine bevorstehende Insolvenz eines Unternehmens vermeiden?).

In Deutschland wird der Bachelor of Business Administration meistens durch private Hochschulen vergeben, welche mit ausländischen Hochschulen kooperieren, da es nach einem Beschluss der Kultusministerkonferenz deutschen Hochschulen nicht erlaubt ist, einen BBA zu verleihen.[1] Einige staatliche Hochschulen bieten Bachelor-Studiengänge mit dem Namen Business Administration oder Bachelor of Business Administration an, verleihen als akademischen Abschluss trotzdem einen Bachelor of Science oder Bachelor of Arts.

Abgrenzung zum Master of Business Administration (MBA)[Bearbeiten]
Genauso wie der Master of Business Administration (MBA) ist der BBA im Regelfall generalistisch, managementorientiert und international ausgerichtet (siehe Akkreditierungskriterien der FIBAA oder der AACSB für MBA-Studiengänge). Einige Hochschulen weichen davon, ebenso wie das bei vielen MBA-Studiengängen gehandhabt wird, ab und bieten den BBA mit stark ausgeprägten Spezialisierungen, zum Beispiel in Marketing oder Logistik, an. Wie beim MBA werden BBA-Studiengänge häufig ganz oder teilweise ausschließlich in englischer Sprache durchgeführt. Deshalb verlangen die meisten Anbieter bestimmte Mindestpunktzahlen bei Englischtests (zum Beispiel TOEFL, TOEIC).[5]

Im Unterschied zum MBA werden meistens die Fähigkeiten, Problemstellungen des mittleren statt des gehobenen Managements erfasst, analysiert und bearbeitet. Weiterhin sind für den BBA im Regelfall kein abgeschlossenes Studium oder Berufserfahrung erforderlich, auf betriebswirtschaftliche Eignungstests wie der beim MBA übliche GMAT wird deshalb verzichtet.

Baccalauréat universitaire ès lettres


Le baccalauréat universitaire en lettres ou baccalauréat en arts est un grade universitaire délivré généralement après des études dans le domaine des lettres, des beaux-arts ou des sciences sociales ou humaines.

Il existe dans la plupart des pays de tradition universitaire anglo-saxonne (Baccalaureate of Arts ou Bachelor's degree of Arts en anglais), correspondant à peu près à la Licence en France avant la réforme récente. En France, c'était un grade des anciennes facultés des Arts avant la Révolution, le terme Arts avait alors un sens beaucoup plus large que maintenant, et c'est ce sens qu'il conserve dans les diplômes délivrés par les universités les plus anciennes du Royaume-Uni.

Ce terme est parfois abrégé en BA (ou plus rarement AB de l'expression latine Artium Baccalaureus).

Vehicle insurance


Vehicle insurance (also known as car insurance or motor insurance) is insurance purchased for cars, trucks, motorcycles, and other road vehicles. Its primary use is to provide financial protection against physical damage and/or bodily injury resulting from traffic collisions and against liability that could also arise there from. The specific terms of vehicle insurance vary with legal regulations in each region. To a lesser degree vehicle insurance may additionally offer financial protection against theft of the vehicle and possibly damage to the vehicle, sustained from things other than traffic collisions.

History

Widespread use of the automobile began after the First World War in the cities. Cars were relatively fast and dangerous by that stage, yet there was still no compulsory form of car insurance anywhere in the world. This meant that injured victims would seldom get any compensation in an accident, and drivers often faced considerable costs for damage to their car and property.

A compulsory car insurance scheme was first introduced in the United Kingdom with the Road Traffic Act 1930. This ensured that all vehicle owners and drivers had to be insured for their liability for injury or death to third parties whilst their vehicle was being used on a public road.[citation needed] Germany enacted similar legislation in 1939.

Public policies
In many jurisdictions it is compulsory to have vehicle insurance before using or keeping a motor vehicle on public roads. Most jurisdictions relate insurance to both the car and the driver, however the degree of each varies greatly.

Several jurisdictions have experimented with a "pay-as-you-drive" insurance plan which is paid through a gasoline tax (petrol tax). This would address issues of uninsured motorists and also charge based on the miles (kilometers) driven, which could theoretically increase the efficiency of the insurance, through streamlined collection

Australia
In Australia, Compulsory Third Party Personal Injury Insurance (CTP) is a state-based scheme that covers only personal injury liability. Comprehensive and Third Party Property Insurance is sold separately to cover property damage additionally, and can include fire, theft, collision, and other property damage. Third Party Property Insurance covers damage to third-party property and vehicles, but not the insured vehicle. Third Party Property Insurance with Fire and Theft additionally covers the insured vehicle against fire and theft. Comprehensive Insurance covers damage to third-party and the insured property and vehicle.

Bachelor of Science


A Bachelor of Science (Latin, Baccalaur
Whether a student of a particular subject is awarded a Bachelor of Science degree or a Bachelor of Arts degree can vary between universities. For example, an economics degree may be given as a Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) by one university but as a B.Sc. by another, and some universities offer the choice of either.[2] Some liberal arts colleges in the United States offer only the BA, even in the natural sciences,[3] while some universities offer only the BS even in non-science fields.[4] Georgetown University's School of Foreign Service awards Bachelor of Science in Foreign Service degrees to all of its undergraduates, although many major in humanities-oriented fields such as international history and culture and politics. The London School of Economics offers B.Sc. degrees in practically all subject areas, even those normally associated with arts degrees, while the Oxbridge universities almost exclusively award arts qualifications. In both instances, there are historical and traditional reasons. Northwestern University's School of Communication grants B.Sc. degrees in all of its programs of study, including theater, dance, and radio/television/film. University of California, Berkeley grants B.S. degree in Environmental Economics and Policy in College of Natural Resources (CNR), and B.A. degree in Environmental Economics and Policy in College of Letters and Science (L&S).

The first university to admit a student to the degree of Bachelor of Science was the University of London in 1860. Prior to this, science subjects were included in the B.A. bracket, notably in the cases of mathematics, physics, physiology and botany.

eus Scientiae) (B.S., BS, B.Sc., BSc or Bc.; less commonly, S.B., SB, or Sc.B. from the Latin Scientiæ Baccalaureus[1]) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for completed courses that generally last three to five years.

Argentina

In Argentina, most university degrees are given as a license in a field or discipline. All degrees are specific to a field and are usually 5–6 year programs including a 1 to 1.5-year mandatory professional training period, which may start only after students have completed 70-80% of the courses required, (usually at the start of the fifth year). For instance, besides the courses, biochemistry (5 years) and biology (6 years) require 1–2 years hands-on training either in a clinical laboratory plus a final exam (for biochemistry) or in a research laboratory plus a thesis defense (biology). The degrees are term licenses in the field of study or profession i.e. biology, nutrition, physical therapy or kinesiology, etc. However, a master's degree requires 2-3 more years of specific training and or courses plus a written thesis with defense in front of a thesis committee.

Engineering and medical degrees are also different and are six year programs of specific classes and training starting immediately after high school. No intermediate degrees count towards the admission examination or even exist (except for systems analysts in information systems engineering). Medical degrees are complemented with a 3–4 years of hospital residence plus 1–2 years of specialization training.

Australia, New Zealand and South Africa

In Australia, the B.Sc. is a three-year degree. A fourth (Honours) year or a Master of Science (M.Sc.) is required to progress on to the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.). In New Zealand, in some cases the Honours degree comprises an additional postgraduate qualification. In other cases, students with strong performance in their second or third year, are invited to extend their degree to an additional year, with a focus on research, granting access to doctoral programs. In South Africa, the B.Sc. is taken over three years, while the postgraduate B.Sc. (Hons) entails an additional year of study. Admission to the honours degree is on the basis of a sufficiently high average in the B.Sc. major; an honours degree is required for M.Sc. level study; and admission to a Doctorate is via the M.Sc.

Britain and Ireland

Commonly in British Commonwealth countries and Ireland graduands are admitted to the degree of Bachelor of Science after having completed a programme in one or more of the sciences. These programmes may take different lengths of time to complete. Note that in British English, no full stops are used in the title, hence BSc, not B.Sc.

A Bachelor of Science receives the designation BSc or BS for a major/pass degree and BSc (Hons) or BS (Hons) for an honours degree. In England, Wales and Northern Ireland an honours degree is typically completed over a three-year period, though there are a few intensified two-year courses (with less vacation time). In Scotland, where access to university is possible after one less year of secondary education, degree courses have a foundation year (simply known as the First year) making the total course length four years. In Ireland the former BS. was changed to BSc (Hons) which is awarded after four years. The BSc (Ord) is awarded after three years.[6] Formerly at the University of Oxford, the degree of BSc was a postgraduate degree; this former degree, still actively granted, has since been renamed MSc.

North America

In Canada and the United States, It is generally a four-year[7] undergraduate degree typically used in engineering, computer science, mathematics, economics, and the natural sciences. Many universities are starting to offer accelerated 3-year B.S. programs.

Continental Europe

Many universities in Europe are changing their systems into the BA/MA system, and in doing so also offering the full equivalent of a B.Sc. or M.Sc. See Bologna Process.

Czech Republic

Universities in the Czech Republic are changing their systems into the Bachelor of Science / Master of Science system, and in doing so also offering the full equivalent of a B.Sc. (Bc.) or M.Sc. (Mgr./Ing.).

Germany

In Germany there are two kinds of universities: Universitäten and Fachhochschulen (which are also called University of Applied Sciences). Universitäten and Fachhochschulen – both also called Hochschulen - are legally equal, but Fachhochschulen have the reputation of being more related to practice and have no legal right to offer PhD programmes.

The BSc in Germany was equivalent to a BSc(Hons). Many universities in German-speaking countries are changing their systems to the BA/MA system, and in doing so also offering the full equivalent of a BSc.

In Germany the BA normally lasts between three and four years (six to eight semesters) and between 180 and 240 ECTS must be earned.

Brazil

In Brazil, a Bachelor of Science degree is an undergraduate degree and is also more specific, usually containing a one-year mandatory probation period by the end of the course, followed by relatively elaborate written and oral evaluations

E-commerce payment system

An e-commerce payment system facilitates the acceptance of electronic payment for online transactions. Also known as a sample of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), e-commerce payment systems have become increasingly popular due to the widespread use of the internet-based shopping and banking.

Over the years, credit cards have become one of the most common forms of payment for e-commerce transactions. In North America almost 90% of online retail transactions were made with this payment type.[1] Turban et al. goes on to explain that it would be difficult for an online retailer to operate without supporting credit and debit cards due to their widespread use. Increased security measures include use of the card verification number (CVN) which detects fraud by comparing the verification number printed on the signature strip on the back of the card with the information on file with the cardholder's issuing bank.[2] Also online merchants have to comply with stringent rules stipulated by the credit and debit card issuers (Visa and MasterCard)[3] this means that merchants must have security protocol and procedures in place to ensure transactions are more secure. This can also include having a certificate from an authorized certification authority (CA) who provides PKI(Public-Key infrastructure) for securing credit and debit card transactions.

Despite widespread use in North America, there are still a large number of countries such as China, India and Pakistan that have some problems to overcome in regard to credit card security. In the meantime, the use of smartcards has become extremely popular. A Smartcard is similar to a credit card; however it contains an embedded 8-bit microprocessor and uses electronic cash which transfers from the consumers’ card to the sellers’ device. A popular smartcard initiative is the VISA Smartcard. Using the VISA Smartcard you can transfer electronic cash to your card from your bank account, and you can then use your card at various retailers and on the internet.

There are companies that enable financial transactions to transpire over the internet, such as PayPal. Many of the mediaries permit consumers to establish an account quickly, and to transfer funds into their on-line accounts from a traditional bank account (typically via ACH transactions), and vice versa, after verification of the consumer's identity and authority to access such bank accounts. Also, the larger mediaries further allow transactions to and from credit card accounts, although such credit card transactions are usually assessed a fee (either to the recipient or the sender) to recoup the transaction fees charged to the mediary.

The speed and simplicity with which cyber-mediary accounts can be established and used have contributed to their widespread use, although the risk of abuse, theft and other problems—with disgruntled users frequently accusing the mediaries themselves of wrongful behavior—is associated with them.

Insurance Europe



Le Comité Européen des Assurances (CEA) est la fédération européenne de l'assurance et de la réassurance1 et a été renommé en Insurance Europe en mars 2011. Par ses 34 associations membres — les associations nationales d'assurance — le CEA représente tous types d'assureurs et de réassureurs. Basé à Bruxelles, le CEA représente 95 % des primes d'assurance européennes et un million d'employés2. Il est a voix de l'assurance européenne au niveau européen et international.

Le CEA fut créé en 1953 pour suivre les travaux de l'OCDE à Paris. Il a ensuite réorienté ses activités vers l'espace européen et s'est ainsi adapté à la création de la Communauté européenne puis de l'Union européenne.
 
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